1960 monachium

pelagianischen Definition) — MuHelv 17 () — intercessio [] Th. missa [] Gamber, K. monachium Lumpe, Adolf Beiträge aus der. StMOn 5 () monachium A. Lumpe, Beiträge aus der Thesaurusarbeit XII. monachium (Cod. Just. 1,2,13): МН 17 () monachus G. M. The Isar River in Munich. suit: the Bavarian liberal mentality grants nudists their place by the river and they have taken them for granted since the s. FC Beste Spielothek in Fornasette finden on 30 May However, the scene of cooperation came to an end abruptly after the assassination of Salameh. Retrieved 13 August From Wikipedia, sepa lastschrift online casino free encyclopedia. It was when we arrived back in Israel. Inthey came away as Bundesliga champions and qualified to —67 European Cupbut losing on aggregate against Real Madrid in second round. Nahariya massacre April Soviet Union United Arab Republic. A West German policeman was also killed in the crossfire. Unlike much later terrorism in the Arab Muslim world, these acts, which ranged from plane hijackings to targeted attacks on Play Sweet Party Slots Online at Casino.com Canada civilians, were motivated largely by a secular brand of nationalism. Allianz Arena Olympiastadion Grünwalder Stadion. The plan was that the West Germans would overpower them as they boarded, giving no deposit casino bonus 2019 snipers a chance to kill the Beste Spielothek in Bissenberg finden terrorists at the helicopters. As a result, the club was relegated to the Regionalliga Bayern for the —18 season. Retrieved 23 July Initially, the perpetrators' plan was to go to Riemwhich was the international airport near Munich at the time, but the negotiators convinced them that Fürstenfeldbruck would be more practical.

1960 Monachium Video

Munich Massacre - The Story of 1972 Olympics

However, the kidnappers refused both offers. Munich police chief Manfred Schreiber, and Bruno Merk, interior minister of Bavaria, negotiated directly with the kidnappers, repeating the offer of an unlimited amount of money.

According to Cooley, the reply was that "money means nothing to us; our lives mean nothing to us. Touny, an Egyptian member of the International Olympic Committee IOC also helped try to win concessions from the kidnappers, but to no avail.

However, the negotiators apparently were able to convince the terrorists that their demands were being considered, as "Issa" granted a total of five deadline extensions.

Elsewhere in the village, athletes carried on as normal, seemingly oblivious of the events unfolding nearby. The Games continued until mounting pressure on the IOC forced a suspension some 12 hours after the first athlete had been murdered.

United States marathon runner Frank Shorter , observing the unfolding events from the balcony of his nearby lodging, was quoted as saying, "Imagine those poor guys over there.

Every five minutes a psycho with a machine gun says, 'Let's kill 'em now,' and someone else says, 'No, let's wait a while. Dressed in Olympic sweatsuits some also wearing Stahlhelme and carrying Walther MP sub-machine guns , they were members of the German border police , although according to former Munich policeman Heinz Hohensinn [35] they were regular Munich police officers, with no experience in combat or hostage rescue.

Their plan was to crawl down from the ventilation shafts and kill the terrorists. The police took up positions awaiting the codeword "Sunshine", which upon hearing, they were to begin the assault.

In the meantime, camera crews filmed the actions of the officers from the German apartments, and broadcast the images live on television.

Thus, the terrorists were able to watch the police prepare to attack. In the end, after "Issa" threatened to kill two of the hostages, the police retreated from the premises.

At one point during the crisis, the negotiators demanded direct contact with the hostages to satisfy themselves the Israelis were still alive.

Fencing coach Andre Spitzer , who spoke fluent German, and shooting coach Kehat Shorr , the senior member of the Israeli delegation, had a brief conversation with West German officials while standing at the second-floor window of the besieged building, with two kidnappers holding guns on them.

When Spitzer attempted to answer a question, he was clubbed with the butt of an AK in full view of international television cameras and pulled away from the window.

A few minutes later, Hans-Dietrich Genscher and Walter Tröger, the mayor of the Olympic Village, were briefly allowed into the apartments to speak with the hostages.

Tröger spoke of being very moved by the dignity with which the Israelis held themselves, and that they seemed resigned to their fate. Tröger noticed that several of the hostages, especially Gutfreund, showed signs of having suffered physical abuse at the hands of the kidnappers, and that David Berger had been shot in his left shoulder.

While being debriefed by the crisis team, Genscher and Tröger told them that they had seen "four or five" attackers inside the apartment.

Fatefully, these numbers were accepted as definitive. While Genscher and Tröger were talking with the hostages, Kehat Shorr had told the West Germans that the Israelis would not object to being flown to an Arab country, provided that strict guarantees for their safety were made by the Germans and whichever nation they landed in.

The authorities feigned agreement to the Cairo demand [ clarification needed ] although Egyptian Prime Minister Aziz Sedki had already told the West German authorities that the Egyptians did not wish to become involved in the hostage crisis.

Initially, the perpetrators' plan was to go to Riem , which was the international airport near Munich at the time, but the negotiators convinced them that Fürstenfeldbruck would be more practical.

The authorities, who preceded the Black Septemberists and hostages in a third helicopter, had an ulterior motive: Realizing that the Palestinians and Israelis had to walk metres through the underground garages to reach the helicopters, the West German police saw another opportunity to ambush the perpetrators, and placed sharpshooters there.

But "Issa" insisted on checking the route first. At that time, the police snipers were lying behind cars in the sidestreets, and when they approached the latter crawled away, making noise in the process.

Thus the terrorists were immediately alerted of the dangerous presence, and they decided to use a bus instead of walking. The bus arrived at Five West German policemen were deployed around the airport in sniper roles—three on the roof of the control tower, one hidden behind a service truck and one behind a small signal tower at ground level.

The soldiers [ contradictory ] were selected because they shot competitively on weekends. The members of the crisis team—Schreiber, Genscher, Merk and Schreiber's deputy Georg Wolf—supervised and observed the attempted rescue from the airport control tower.

Cooley, Reeve and Groussard all place Mossad chief Zvi Zamir and Victor Cohen, one of Zamir's senior assistants, at the scene as well, but as observers only.

Zamir has stated repeatedly in interviews over the years that he was never consulted by the Germans at any time during the rescue attempt and thought that his presence actually made the Germans uncomfortable.

A Boeing jet was positioned on the tarmac with sixteen West German police inside dressed as flight crew.

The plan was that the West Germans would overpower them as they boarded, giving the snipers a chance to kill the remaining terrorists at the helicopters.

However, during the transfer from the bus to the helicopters, the crisis team discovered that there were actually eight of them.

At the last minute, as the helicopters were arriving at Fürstenfeldbruck, the West German police aboard the airplane voted to abandon their mission, without consulting the central command.

This left only the five sharpshooters to try to overpower a larger and more heavily armed group. At that point, Colonel Ulrich Wegener , Genscher's senior aide and later the founder of the elite German counter-terrorist unit GSG 9 , said "I'm sure this will blow the whole affair!

The helicopters landed just after While four of the Black September members held the pilots at gunpoint breaking an earlier promise that they would not take any Germans hostage , Issa and Tony walked over to inspect the jet, only to find it empty.

Realizing they had been lured into a trap, they sprinted back toward the helicopters. As they ran past the control tower, Sniper 3 took one last opportunity to eliminate "Issa", which would have left the group leaderless.

However, due to the poor lighting, he struggled to see his target and missed, hitting "Tony" in the thigh instead.

Meanwhile, the West German authorities gave the order for snipers positioned nearby to open fire, which occurred around In the ensuing chaos, Ahmed Chic Thaa and Afif Ahmed Hamid, the two kidnappers holding the helicopter pilots, were killed while the remaining gunmen—some possibly already wounded—scrambled to safety, returning fire from behind and beneath the helicopters, out of the snipers' line of sight, shooting out many of the airport lights.

A West German policeman in the control tower, Anton Fliegerbauer, was killed by the gunfire. The helicopter pilots fled; the hostages, tied up inside the craft, could not.

During the gun battle, the hostages secretly worked on loosening their bonds and teethmarks were found on some of the ropes after the gunfire had ended.

The West Germans had not arranged for armored personnel carriers ahead of time and only at this point were they called in to break the deadlock.

Since the roads to the airport had not been cleared, the carriers became stuck in traffic and finally arrived around midnight.

With their appearance, the kidnappers felt the shift in the status quo, and possibly panicked at the thought of the failure of their operation.

At four minutes past midnight of 6 September, one of them likely Issa turned on the hostages in the eastern helicopter and fired at them with a Kalashnikov assault rifle from point-blank range.

Springer, Halfin and Friedman were killed instantly; Berger, shot twice in the leg, is believed to have survived the initial onslaught as his autopsy later found that he had died of smoke inhalation.

The attacker then pulled the pin on a hand grenade and tossed it into the cockpit; the ensuing explosion destroyed the helicopter and incinerated the bound Israelis inside.

Issa then dashed across the tarmac and began firing at the police, who killed him with return fire. Another, Khalid Jawad, attempted to escape and was gunned down by one of the snipers.

What happened to the remaining hostages is still a matter of dispute. A German police investigation indicated that one of their snipers and a few of the hostages may have been shot inadvertently by the police.

However, a Time magazine reconstruction of the long-suppressed Bavarian prosecutor's report indicates that a third kidnapper Reeve identifies Adnan Al-Gashey stood at the door of the western helicopter and raked the remaining five hostages with machine gun fire; Gutfreund, Shorr, Slavin, Spitzer and Shapira were shot an average of four times each.

Of the four hostages in the eastern helicopter, only Ze'ev Friedman 's body was relatively intact; he had been blown clear of the helicopter by the explosion.

In some cases, the exact cause of death for the hostages in the eastern helicopter was difficult to establish because the rest of the corpses were burned almost beyond recognition in the explosion and subsequent fire.

Three of the remaining men lay on the ground, one of them feigning death, and were captured by police. Jamal Al-Gashey had been shot through his right wrist, [32] and Mohammed Safady had sustained a flesh wound to his leg.

Tony escaped the scene, but was tracked down with police dogs 40 minutes later in an airbase parking lot. Cornered and bombarded with tear gas, he was shot dead after a brief gunfight.

Initial news reports, published all over the world, indicated that all the hostages were alive, and that all the attackers had been killed. Only later did a representative for the International Olympic Committee IOC suggest that "initial reports were overly optimistic.

We just got the final word They've now said that there were eleven hostages. Two were killed in their rooms yesterday morning, nine were killed at the airport tonight.

Several sources listed Ladany as having been killed. The impact did not hit me at the time, when we were in Munich.

It was when we arrived back in Israel. At the airport in Lod there was a huge crowd—maybe 20, people—and each one of us, the survivors, stood by one of the coffins on the runway.

Some friends came up to me and tried to kiss me and hug me as if I was almost a ghost that came back alive.

It was then that I really grasped what had happened and the emotion hit me. Author Simon Reeve , among others, writes that the shootout with the well-trained Black September members showed an egregious lack of preparation on the part of the German authorities.

They were not prepared to deal with this sort of situation. This costly lesson led directly to the founding, less than two months later, of police counter-terrorism branch GSG 9.

German authorities made a number of mistakes. First, because of restrictions in the post-war West German constitution , the army could not participate in the attempted rescue, as the German armed forces are not allowed to operate inside Germany during peacetime.

The responsibility was entirely in the hands of the Munich police and the Bavarian authorities. It was known a half-hour before the hostages and kidnappers had even arrived at Fürstenfeldbruck that the number of the latter was larger than first believed.

Despite this new information, Schreiber decided to continue with the rescue operation as originally planned and the new information could not reach the snipers since they had no radios.

It is a basic tenet of sniping operations that there are enough snipers at least two for each known target, or in this case a minimum of ten deployed to neutralize as many of the attackers as possible with the first volley of shots.

Instead, the helicopters were landed facing the control tower and at the centre of the airstrip. This not only gave them a place to hide after the gunfight began, but put Snipers 1 and 2 in the line of fire of the other three snipers on the control tower.

The snipers were denied valuable shooting opportunities as a result of the positioning of the helicopters, stacking the odds against what were effectively three snipers versus eight heavily armed gunmen.

According to the same program, the crisis committee delegated to make decisions on how to deal with the incident consisted of Bruno Merk the Bavarian interior minister , Hans-Dietrich Genscher the West German interior minister and Manfred Schreiber Munich's Chief of Police ; in other words, two politicians and one tactician.

The program mentioned that a year before the Games, Schreiber had participated in another hostage crisis a failed bank robbery in which he ordered a marksman to shoot one of the perpetrators, managing only to wound the robber.

As a result, the robbers shot an innocent woman dead. Schreiber was consequently charged with involuntary manslaughter.

An investigation ultimately cleared him of any wrongdoing, but the program suggested that the prior incident affected his judgment in the subsequent Olympic hostage crisis.

As mentioned earlier, the five German snipers at Fürstenfeldbruck did not have radio contact with one another nor with the German authorities conducting the rescue operation and therefore were unable to coordinate their fire.

The only contact the snipers had with the operational leadership was with Georg Wolf, who was lying next to the three snipers on the control tower giving orders directly to them.

In addition, the snipers did not have the proper equipment for this hostage rescue operation. There were also numerous tactical errors.

As mentioned earlier, "Sniper 2", who was stationed behind the signal tower, wound up directly in the line of fire of his fellow snipers on the control tower, without any protective gear and without any other police being aware of his location.

One of the helicopter pilots, Gunnar Ebel, was lying near "Sniper 2" and was also wounded by friendly fire. Both Ebel and the sniper recovered from their injuries.

Many of the errors made by the Germans during the rescue attempt were ultimately detailed by Heinz Hohensinn, who had participated in Operation Sunshine earlier that day.

He stated in One Day in September that he had been selected to pose as a crew member. He and his fellow policemen understood that it was a suicide mission, so the group unanimously voted to flee the plane.

None of them were reprimanded for that desertion. The bodies of the five Palestinian attackers—Afif, Nazzal, Chic Thaa, Hamid and Jamal—killed during the Fürstenfeldbruck gun battle were delivered to Libya, where they received heroes' funerals and were buried with full military honours.

The three surviving Black September gunmen had been arrested after the Fürstenfeldbruck gunfight, and were being held in a Munich prison for trial. On 29 October, Lufthansa Flight was hijacked and threatened to be blown up if the Munich attackers were not released.

Safady and the Al-Gasheys were immediately released by West Germany, receiving a tumultuous welcome when they touched down in Libya and as seen in One Day in September giving their own firsthand account of their operation at a press conference broadcast worldwide.

Further international investigations into the Lufthansa Flight incident have produced theories of a secret agreement between the German government and Black September release of the surviving terrorists in exchange for assurances of no further attacks on Germany.

In the wake of the hostage-taking, competition was eventually suspended for the first time in modern Olympic history, after public criticism of the Olympic Committee's decision to continue the games.

On 6 September, a memorial service attended by 80, spectators and 3, athletes was held in the Olympic Stadium. IOC President Avery Brundage made little reference to the murdered athletes during a speech praising the strength of the Olympic movement and equating the attack on the Israeli sportsmen with the recent arguments about encroaching professionalism and disallowing Rhodesia 's participation in the Games, which outraged many listeners.

During the memorial service, Eliash collapsed and died of a heart attack. Many of the 80, people who filled the Olympic Stadium for West Germany 's football match with Hungary carried noisemakers and waved flags, but when several spectators unfurled a banner reading "17 dead, already forgotten?

Ten Arab nations objected to their flags being lowered to honor murdered Israelis; their flags were restored to the tops of their flagpoles almost immediately.

Willi Daume, president of the Munich organizing committee, initially sought to cancel the remainder of the Games, but in the afternoon Brundage and others who wished to continue the Games prevailed, stating that they could not let the incident halt the Games.

On 6 September, after the memorial service, the remaining members of the Israeli team withdrew from the Games and left Munich.

All Jewish sportsmen were placed under guard. Mark Spitz , the American swimming star who had already completed his competitions, left Munich during the hostage crisis it was feared that as a prominent Jew, Spitz might now be a kidnapping target.

The Egyptian team left the Games on 7 September, stating they feared reprisals. American marathon runner Kenny Moore , who wrote about the incident for Sports Illustrated , quoted Dutch distance runner Jos Hermens as saying "It's quite simple.

We were invited to a party, and if someone comes to the party and shoots people, how can you stay? Four years later at the Summer Olympics in Montreal, the Israeli team commemorated the massacre: The families of some victims have asked the IOC to establish a permanent memorial to the athletes.

The IOC has declined, saying that to introduce a specific reference to the victims could "alienate other members of the Olympic community," according to the BBC.

The IOC rejected an international campaign in support of a minute of silence at the Opening Ceremony of the London Olympics in honour of the Israeli victims on the 40th anniversary of the massacre.

I do not understand, and I do not accept it. There is a memorial outside the Olympic stadium in Munich in the form of a stone tablet at the bridge linking the stadium to the former Olympic village.

On 15 October almost a year before the Sydney Games , a memorial plaque was unveiled in one of the large light towers Tower 14 outside the Sydney Olympic Stadium.

Golda Meir and the Israeli Defense Committee secretly authorized the Mossad to track down and kill those allegedly responsible for the Munich massacre.

In a February interview, [76] former Mossad chief Zvi Zamir answered direct questions:. We were not engaged in vengeance.

We are accused of having been guided by a desire for vengeance. What we did was to concretely prevent in the future. We acted against those who thought that they would continue to perpetrate acts of terror.

I am not saying that those who were involved in Munich were not marked for death. They definitely deserved to die.

But we were not dealing with the past; we concentrated on the future. Golda abhorred the necessity that was imposed on us to carry out the operations.

Golda never told me to 'take revenge on those who were responsible for Munich. We had no choice. We had to make them stop, and there was no other way But it was a question of sheer necessity.

We went back to the old biblical rule of an eye for an eye I approach these problems not from a moral point of view, but, hard as it may sound, from a cost-benefit point of view.

If I'm very hard-headed, I can say, what is the political benefit in killing this person? Will it bring us nearer to peace? Will it bring us nearer to an understanding with the Palestinians or not?

In most cases I don't think it will. But in the case of Black September we had no other choice and it worked. Is it morally acceptable? One can debate that question.

Is it politically vital? Benny Morris writes that a target list was created using information from "turned" PLO personnel and friendly European intelligence services.

Once completed, a wave of assassinations of suspected Black September operatives began across Europe. A group of Sayeret commandos were taken in nine missile boats and a small fleet of patrol boats to a deserted Lebanese beach, before driving in two cars to downtown Beirut, where they killed Najjar, Adwan and Nassir.

The leader of the commando team that conducted the operations was Ehud Barak. On 21 July , in the Lillehammer affair , a team of Mossad agents mistakenly killed Ahmed Bouchiki , a Moroccan man unrelated to the Munich attack, in Lillehammer , Norway, [78] after an informant mistakenly said Bouchiki was Ali Hassan Salameh , the head of Force 17 and a Black September operative.

Five Mossad agents, including two women, were captured by the Norwegian authorities, while others managed to slip away.

The Mossad later found Ali Hassan Salameh in Beirut and killed him on 22 January with a remote-controlled car bomb.

The attack killed four passersby and injured 18 others. There was a general feeling that Americans could be trusted. However, the scene of cooperation came to an end abruptly after the assassination of Salameh.

Americans were generally blamed as Israel's principal benefactors. Simon Reeve writes that the Israeli operations continued for more than twenty years.

He details the assassination in Paris in of Atef Bseiso , the PLO's head of intelligence, and says that an Israeli general confirmed there was a link back to Munich.

Reeve also writes that while Israeli officials have stated Operation Wrath of God was intended to exact vengeance for the families of the athletes killed in Munich, "few relatives wanted such a violent reckoning with the Palestinians.

Reeve outlines what he sees as a lengthy cover-up by German authorities to hide the truth. An article in in a front-page story of the German news magazine Der Spiegel reported that much of the information pertaining to the mishandling of the massacre was covered up by the German authorities.

For twenty years, Germany refused to release any information about the attack and did not accept responsibility for the results. The magazine reported that the government had been hiding 3, files, which contained tens of thousands of documents.

Der Spiegel said it obtained secret reports by authorities, embassy cables, and minutes of cabinet meetings that demonstrate the lack of professionalism of the German officials in handling the massacre.

The newspaper also wrote that the German authorities were told that Palestinians were planning an "incident" at the Olympics three weeks before the massacre, but failed to take the necessary security measures, and these facts are missing from the official documentation of the German government.

In August , Der Spiegel reported that following the massacre, Germany began secret meetings with Black September, at the behest of the West German government, due to the fear that Black September would carry out other terrorist attacks in Germany.

Bundesliga after a 1—2 defeat against 1. FC Heidenheim in the last game of the season. They played and 0—2 respectively in the following relegation play-off against Jahn Regensburg and were therefore officially relegated.

Liga license for the —18 season as a result of investor Hassan Ismaik's unwillingness to pay the necessary fees. As a result, the club was relegated to the Regionalliga Bayern for the —18 season.

The second eleven struggled during the club's years outside professional football, but rose through the ranks again after the club's revival in the early s and returned to the Bayernliga in , winning the title in its first season there and promotion to the third-tier Regionalliga Süd.

The team was relegated to the Bayernliga in , and returned to the Regionalliga Süd in Liga qualification in the —08 season, and again in the —13 season when it won the newly formed Regionalliga Bayern but lost to SV Elversberg in the promotion round.

Because the first team was relegated to Regionalliga Bayern for the season, the reserve team was relegated to the fifth-tier Bayernliga Süd.

Through the season, Munich played their home matches in the Allianz Arena , which they shared with city rivals Bayern Munich. The arena's skin color lighting is changed to s blue when the team plays.

The club's inaugural game at the Allianz Arena was a friendly played against 1. FC Nürnberg on 30 May The stadium hosted the opening match of the World Cup between Germany and Costa Rica and three other first round contests, a Round of 16 match between Germany and Sweden , and a semi-final between France and Portugal.

Built in , they also shared with Bayern Munich between and Both clubs then moved to the new Olympiastadion built for the Olympic Games.

TSV moved back to the old ground several times from on, with the years between and being the longest period.

TSV München have not been able to meet the capacity standards of the Allianz Arena and returned to their old stadium, the Grünwalder Stadion.

Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from TSV München. Bundesliga Süd II Champions: Oberliga Süd II Champions: Kampf ums Überleben spitzt sich zu" in German.

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Touny, an Egyptian member of the International Olympic Committee IOC also helped try to win concessions from the kidnappers, but to no avail.

However, the negotiators apparently were able to convince the terrorists that their demands were being considered, as "Issa" granted a total of five deadline extensions.

Elsewhere in the village, athletes carried on as normal, seemingly oblivious of the events unfolding nearby. The Games continued until mounting pressure on the IOC forced a suspension some 12 hours after the first athlete had been murdered.

United States marathon runner Frank Shorter , observing the unfolding events from the balcony of his nearby lodging, was quoted as saying, "Imagine those poor guys over there.

Every five minutes a psycho with a machine gun says, 'Let's kill 'em now,' and someone else says, 'No, let's wait a while. Dressed in Olympic sweatsuits some also wearing Stahlhelme and carrying Walther MP sub-machine guns , they were members of the German border police , although according to former Munich policeman Heinz Hohensinn [35] they were regular Munich police officers, with no experience in combat or hostage rescue.

Their plan was to crawl down from the ventilation shafts and kill the terrorists. The police took up positions awaiting the codeword "Sunshine", which upon hearing, they were to begin the assault.

In the meantime, camera crews filmed the actions of the officers from the German apartments, and broadcast the images live on television.

Thus, the terrorists were able to watch the police prepare to attack. In the end, after "Issa" threatened to kill two of the hostages, the police retreated from the premises.

At one point during the crisis, the negotiators demanded direct contact with the hostages to satisfy themselves the Israelis were still alive.

Fencing coach Andre Spitzer , who spoke fluent German, and shooting coach Kehat Shorr , the senior member of the Israeli delegation, had a brief conversation with West German officials while standing at the second-floor window of the besieged building, with two kidnappers holding guns on them.

When Spitzer attempted to answer a question, he was clubbed with the butt of an AK in full view of international television cameras and pulled away from the window.

A few minutes later, Hans-Dietrich Genscher and Walter Tröger, the mayor of the Olympic Village, were briefly allowed into the apartments to speak with the hostages.

Tröger spoke of being very moved by the dignity with which the Israelis held themselves, and that they seemed resigned to their fate. Tröger noticed that several of the hostages, especially Gutfreund, showed signs of having suffered physical abuse at the hands of the kidnappers, and that David Berger had been shot in his left shoulder.

While being debriefed by the crisis team, Genscher and Tröger told them that they had seen "four or five" attackers inside the apartment.

Fatefully, these numbers were accepted as definitive. While Genscher and Tröger were talking with the hostages, Kehat Shorr had told the West Germans that the Israelis would not object to being flown to an Arab country, provided that strict guarantees for their safety were made by the Germans and whichever nation they landed in.

The authorities feigned agreement to the Cairo demand [ clarification needed ] although Egyptian Prime Minister Aziz Sedki had already told the West German authorities that the Egyptians did not wish to become involved in the hostage crisis.

Initially, the perpetrators' plan was to go to Riem , which was the international airport near Munich at the time, but the negotiators convinced them that Fürstenfeldbruck would be more practical.

The authorities, who preceded the Black Septemberists and hostages in a third helicopter, had an ulterior motive: Realizing that the Palestinians and Israelis had to walk metres through the underground garages to reach the helicopters, the West German police saw another opportunity to ambush the perpetrators, and placed sharpshooters there.

But "Issa" insisted on checking the route first. At that time, the police snipers were lying behind cars in the sidestreets, and when they approached the latter crawled away, making noise in the process.

Thus the terrorists were immediately alerted of the dangerous presence, and they decided to use a bus instead of walking.

The bus arrived at Five West German policemen were deployed around the airport in sniper roles—three on the roof of the control tower, one hidden behind a service truck and one behind a small signal tower at ground level.

The soldiers [ contradictory ] were selected because they shot competitively on weekends. The members of the crisis team—Schreiber, Genscher, Merk and Schreiber's deputy Georg Wolf—supervised and observed the attempted rescue from the airport control tower.

Cooley, Reeve and Groussard all place Mossad chief Zvi Zamir and Victor Cohen, one of Zamir's senior assistants, at the scene as well, but as observers only.

Zamir has stated repeatedly in interviews over the years that he was never consulted by the Germans at any time during the rescue attempt and thought that his presence actually made the Germans uncomfortable.

A Boeing jet was positioned on the tarmac with sixteen West German police inside dressed as flight crew. The plan was that the West Germans would overpower them as they boarded, giving the snipers a chance to kill the remaining terrorists at the helicopters.

However, during the transfer from the bus to the helicopters, the crisis team discovered that there were actually eight of them.

At the last minute, as the helicopters were arriving at Fürstenfeldbruck, the West German police aboard the airplane voted to abandon their mission, without consulting the central command.

This left only the five sharpshooters to try to overpower a larger and more heavily armed group. At that point, Colonel Ulrich Wegener , Genscher's senior aide and later the founder of the elite German counter-terrorist unit GSG 9 , said "I'm sure this will blow the whole affair!

The helicopters landed just after While four of the Black September members held the pilots at gunpoint breaking an earlier promise that they would not take any Germans hostage , Issa and Tony walked over to inspect the jet, only to find it empty.

Realizing they had been lured into a trap, they sprinted back toward the helicopters. As they ran past the control tower, Sniper 3 took one last opportunity to eliminate "Issa", which would have left the group leaderless.

However, due to the poor lighting, he struggled to see his target and missed, hitting "Tony" in the thigh instead.

Meanwhile, the West German authorities gave the order for snipers positioned nearby to open fire, which occurred around In the ensuing chaos, Ahmed Chic Thaa and Afif Ahmed Hamid, the two kidnappers holding the helicopter pilots, were killed while the remaining gunmen—some possibly already wounded—scrambled to safety, returning fire from behind and beneath the helicopters, out of the snipers' line of sight, shooting out many of the airport lights.

A West German policeman in the control tower, Anton Fliegerbauer, was killed by the gunfire. The helicopter pilots fled; the hostages, tied up inside the craft, could not.

During the gun battle, the hostages secretly worked on loosening their bonds and teethmarks were found on some of the ropes after the gunfire had ended.

The West Germans had not arranged for armored personnel carriers ahead of time and only at this point were they called in to break the deadlock.

Since the roads to the airport had not been cleared, the carriers became stuck in traffic and finally arrived around midnight. With their appearance, the kidnappers felt the shift in the status quo, and possibly panicked at the thought of the failure of their operation.

At four minutes past midnight of 6 September, one of them likely Issa turned on the hostages in the eastern helicopter and fired at them with a Kalashnikov assault rifle from point-blank range.

Springer, Halfin and Friedman were killed instantly; Berger, shot twice in the leg, is believed to have survived the initial onslaught as his autopsy later found that he had died of smoke inhalation.

The attacker then pulled the pin on a hand grenade and tossed it into the cockpit; the ensuing explosion destroyed the helicopter and incinerated the bound Israelis inside.

Issa then dashed across the tarmac and began firing at the police, who killed him with return fire. Another, Khalid Jawad, attempted to escape and was gunned down by one of the snipers.

What happened to the remaining hostages is still a matter of dispute. A German police investigation indicated that one of their snipers and a few of the hostages may have been shot inadvertently by the police.

However, a Time magazine reconstruction of the long-suppressed Bavarian prosecutor's report indicates that a third kidnapper Reeve identifies Adnan Al-Gashey stood at the door of the western helicopter and raked the remaining five hostages with machine gun fire; Gutfreund, Shorr, Slavin, Spitzer and Shapira were shot an average of four times each.

Of the four hostages in the eastern helicopter, only Ze'ev Friedman 's body was relatively intact; he had been blown clear of the helicopter by the explosion.

In some cases, the exact cause of death for the hostages in the eastern helicopter was difficult to establish because the rest of the corpses were burned almost beyond recognition in the explosion and subsequent fire.

Three of the remaining men lay on the ground, one of them feigning death, and were captured by police. Jamal Al-Gashey had been shot through his right wrist, [32] and Mohammed Safady had sustained a flesh wound to his leg.

Tony escaped the scene, but was tracked down with police dogs 40 minutes later in an airbase parking lot. Cornered and bombarded with tear gas, he was shot dead after a brief gunfight.

Initial news reports, published all over the world, indicated that all the hostages were alive, and that all the attackers had been killed.

Only later did a representative for the International Olympic Committee IOC suggest that "initial reports were overly optimistic.

We just got the final word They've now said that there were eleven hostages. Two were killed in their rooms yesterday morning, nine were killed at the airport tonight.

Several sources listed Ladany as having been killed. The impact did not hit me at the time, when we were in Munich. It was when we arrived back in Israel.

At the airport in Lod there was a huge crowd—maybe 20, people—and each one of us, the survivors, stood by one of the coffins on the runway.

Some friends came up to me and tried to kiss me and hug me as if I was almost a ghost that came back alive.

It was then that I really grasped what had happened and the emotion hit me. Author Simon Reeve , among others, writes that the shootout with the well-trained Black September members showed an egregious lack of preparation on the part of the German authorities.

They were not prepared to deal with this sort of situation. This costly lesson led directly to the founding, less than two months later, of police counter-terrorism branch GSG 9.

German authorities made a number of mistakes. First, because of restrictions in the post-war West German constitution , the army could not participate in the attempted rescue, as the German armed forces are not allowed to operate inside Germany during peacetime.

The responsibility was entirely in the hands of the Munich police and the Bavarian authorities. It was known a half-hour before the hostages and kidnappers had even arrived at Fürstenfeldbruck that the number of the latter was larger than first believed.

Despite this new information, Schreiber decided to continue with the rescue operation as originally planned and the new information could not reach the snipers since they had no radios.

It is a basic tenet of sniping operations that there are enough snipers at least two for each known target, or in this case a minimum of ten deployed to neutralize as many of the attackers as possible with the first volley of shots.

Instead, the helicopters were landed facing the control tower and at the centre of the airstrip. This not only gave them a place to hide after the gunfight began, but put Snipers 1 and 2 in the line of fire of the other three snipers on the control tower.

The snipers were denied valuable shooting opportunities as a result of the positioning of the helicopters, stacking the odds against what were effectively three snipers versus eight heavily armed gunmen.

According to the same program, the crisis committee delegated to make decisions on how to deal with the incident consisted of Bruno Merk the Bavarian interior minister , Hans-Dietrich Genscher the West German interior minister and Manfred Schreiber Munich's Chief of Police ; in other words, two politicians and one tactician.

The program mentioned that a year before the Games, Schreiber had participated in another hostage crisis a failed bank robbery in which he ordered a marksman to shoot one of the perpetrators, managing only to wound the robber.

As a result, the robbers shot an innocent woman dead. Schreiber was consequently charged with involuntary manslaughter. An investigation ultimately cleared him of any wrongdoing, but the program suggested that the prior incident affected his judgment in the subsequent Olympic hostage crisis.

As mentioned earlier, the five German snipers at Fürstenfeldbruck did not have radio contact with one another nor with the German authorities conducting the rescue operation and therefore were unable to coordinate their fire.

The only contact the snipers had with the operational leadership was with Georg Wolf, who was lying next to the three snipers on the control tower giving orders directly to them.

In addition, the snipers did not have the proper equipment for this hostage rescue operation. There were also numerous tactical errors. As mentioned earlier, "Sniper 2", who was stationed behind the signal tower, wound up directly in the line of fire of his fellow snipers on the control tower, without any protective gear and without any other police being aware of his location.

One of the helicopter pilots, Gunnar Ebel, was lying near "Sniper 2" and was also wounded by friendly fire. Both Ebel and the sniper recovered from their injuries.

Many of the errors made by the Germans during the rescue attempt were ultimately detailed by Heinz Hohensinn, who had participated in Operation Sunshine earlier that day.

He stated in One Day in September that he had been selected to pose as a crew member. He and his fellow policemen understood that it was a suicide mission, so the group unanimously voted to flee the plane.

None of them were reprimanded for that desertion. The bodies of the five Palestinian attackers—Afif, Nazzal, Chic Thaa, Hamid and Jamal—killed during the Fürstenfeldbruck gun battle were delivered to Libya, where they received heroes' funerals and were buried with full military honours.

The three surviving Black September gunmen had been arrested after the Fürstenfeldbruck gunfight, and were being held in a Munich prison for trial.

On 29 October, Lufthansa Flight was hijacked and threatened to be blown up if the Munich attackers were not released.

Safady and the Al-Gasheys were immediately released by West Germany, receiving a tumultuous welcome when they touched down in Libya and as seen in One Day in September giving their own firsthand account of their operation at a press conference broadcast worldwide.

Further international investigations into the Lufthansa Flight incident have produced theories of a secret agreement between the German government and Black September release of the surviving terrorists in exchange for assurances of no further attacks on Germany.

In the wake of the hostage-taking, competition was eventually suspended for the first time in modern Olympic history, after public criticism of the Olympic Committee's decision to continue the games.

On 6 September, a memorial service attended by 80, spectators and 3, athletes was held in the Olympic Stadium. IOC President Avery Brundage made little reference to the murdered athletes during a speech praising the strength of the Olympic movement and equating the attack on the Israeli sportsmen with the recent arguments about encroaching professionalism and disallowing Rhodesia 's participation in the Games, which outraged many listeners.

During the memorial service, Eliash collapsed and died of a heart attack. Many of the 80, people who filled the Olympic Stadium for West Germany 's football match with Hungary carried noisemakers and waved flags, but when several spectators unfurled a banner reading "17 dead, already forgotten?

Ten Arab nations objected to their flags being lowered to honor murdered Israelis; their flags were restored to the tops of their flagpoles almost immediately.

Willi Daume, president of the Munich organizing committee, initially sought to cancel the remainder of the Games, but in the afternoon Brundage and others who wished to continue the Games prevailed, stating that they could not let the incident halt the Games.

On 6 September, after the memorial service, the remaining members of the Israeli team withdrew from the Games and left Munich.

All Jewish sportsmen were placed under guard. Mark Spitz , the American swimming star who had already completed his competitions, left Munich during the hostage crisis it was feared that as a prominent Jew, Spitz might now be a kidnapping target.

The Egyptian team left the Games on 7 September, stating they feared reprisals. American marathon runner Kenny Moore , who wrote about the incident for Sports Illustrated , quoted Dutch distance runner Jos Hermens as saying "It's quite simple.

We were invited to a party, and if someone comes to the party and shoots people, how can you stay? Four years later at the Summer Olympics in Montreal, the Israeli team commemorated the massacre: The families of some victims have asked the IOC to establish a permanent memorial to the athletes.

The IOC has declined, saying that to introduce a specific reference to the victims could "alienate other members of the Olympic community," according to the BBC.

The IOC rejected an international campaign in support of a minute of silence at the Opening Ceremony of the London Olympics in honour of the Israeli victims on the 40th anniversary of the massacre.

I do not understand, and I do not accept it. There is a memorial outside the Olympic stadium in Munich in the form of a stone tablet at the bridge linking the stadium to the former Olympic village.

On 15 October almost a year before the Sydney Games , a memorial plaque was unveiled in one of the large light towers Tower 14 outside the Sydney Olympic Stadium.

Golda Meir and the Israeli Defense Committee secretly authorized the Mossad to track down and kill those allegedly responsible for the Munich massacre.

In a February interview, [76] former Mossad chief Zvi Zamir answered direct questions:. We were not engaged in vengeance.

We are accused of having been guided by a desire for vengeance. What we did was to concretely prevent in the future. We acted against those who thought that they would continue to perpetrate acts of terror.

I am not saying that those who were involved in Munich were not marked for death. They definitely deserved to die.

But we were not dealing with the past; we concentrated on the future. Golda abhorred the necessity that was imposed on us to carry out the operations.

Golda never told me to 'take revenge on those who were responsible for Munich. We had no choice. We had to make them stop, and there was no other way But it was a question of sheer necessity.

We went back to the old biblical rule of an eye for an eye I approach these problems not from a moral point of view, but, hard as it may sound, from a cost-benefit point of view.

If I'm very hard-headed, I can say, what is the political benefit in killing this person? Will it bring us nearer to peace? Will it bring us nearer to an understanding with the Palestinians or not?

In most cases I don't think it will. But in the case of Black September we had no other choice and it worked. Is it morally acceptable? One can debate that question.

Is it politically vital? Benny Morris writes that a target list was created using information from "turned" PLO personnel and friendly European intelligence services.

Once completed, a wave of assassinations of suspected Black September operatives began across Europe. A group of Sayeret commandos were taken in nine missile boats and a small fleet of patrol boats to a deserted Lebanese beach, before driving in two cars to downtown Beirut, where they killed Najjar, Adwan and Nassir.

The leader of the commando team that conducted the operations was Ehud Barak. On 21 July , in the Lillehammer affair , a team of Mossad agents mistakenly killed Ahmed Bouchiki , a Moroccan man unrelated to the Munich attack, in Lillehammer , Norway, [78] after an informant mistakenly said Bouchiki was Ali Hassan Salameh , the head of Force 17 and a Black September operative.

Five Mossad agents, including two women, were captured by the Norwegian authorities, while others managed to slip away. The Mossad later found Ali Hassan Salameh in Beirut and killed him on 22 January with a remote-controlled car bomb.

The attack killed four passersby and injured 18 others. There was a general feeling that Americans could be trusted. However, the scene of cooperation came to an end abruptly after the assassination of Salameh.

Americans were generally blamed as Israel's principal benefactors. Simon Reeve writes that the Israeli operations continued for more than twenty years.

He details the assassination in Paris in of Atef Bseiso , the PLO's head of intelligence, and says that an Israeli general confirmed there was a link back to Munich.

Reeve also writes that while Israeli officials have stated Operation Wrath of God was intended to exact vengeance for the families of the athletes killed in Munich, "few relatives wanted such a violent reckoning with the Palestinians.

Reeve outlines what he sees as a lengthy cover-up by German authorities to hide the truth. An article in in a front-page story of the German news magazine Der Spiegel reported that much of the information pertaining to the mishandling of the massacre was covered up by the German authorities.

For twenty years, Germany refused to release any information about the attack and did not accept responsibility for the results.

The magazine reported that the government had been hiding 3, files, which contained tens of thousands of documents. Der Spiegel said it obtained secret reports by authorities, embassy cables, and minutes of cabinet meetings that demonstrate the lack of professionalism of the German officials in handling the massacre.

The newspaper also wrote that the German authorities were told that Palestinians were planning an "incident" at the Olympics three weeks before the massacre, but failed to take the necessary security measures, and these facts are missing from the official documentation of the German government.

In August , Der Spiegel reported that following the massacre, Germany began secret meetings with Black September, at the behest of the West German government, due to the fear that Black September would carry out other terrorist attacks in Germany.

The government proposed a clandestine meeting between German Foreign Minister Walter Scheel and a member of Black September to create a "new basis of trust.

Al-Gashey was allegedly located after making contact with a cousin in a Gulf State , and Safady was found by remaining in touch with family in Lebanon.

Klein, who claims that Al-Gashey died of heart failure in the s, and that Safady was killed by Christian Phalangists in Lebanon in the early s.

Their subsequent play-off appearance saw them finish second in their pool to finalist Rapid Wien. The following season they failed to advance to the national play-off rounds, but did go on to earn their first major honours by defeating Schalke 04 to capture the Tschammerpokal , known today as the DFB-Pokal.

TSV returned to the national play-offs again in , progressing to the quarter-finals. After World War II, played in the top flight Oberliga Süd as a mid-table side, suffering relegation for a period of three years in the mids.

However, they delivered when it mattered most in by winning the league championship and with it automatic entry into Germany's new professional league, the Bundesliga , ahead of rivals Bayern Munich , who would have to wait two seasons for their own top flight debut since the German Football Association DFB did not want two teams from the same city in the new league.

In , they came away as Bundesliga champions and qualified to —67 European Cup , but losing on aggregate against Real Madrid in second round.

On 3 June , they finished as runners up in Bundesliga. Those performances were followed by poor showings in three consecutive seasons leading to relegation in to the Regionalliga Süd II.

It took seven years to make their way back to the first division, through a three-game play-off contest with Arminia Bielefeld , only to be immediately relegated again.

One year later they were back, this time for a two-year stay, then in they were relegated once again and then forced into the tier III Amateur Oberliga Bayern when financial problems led to the club being denied a licence.

The club's exile from the Bundesliga would last a dozen years. They were promoted to the top flight in , but found themselves in immediate danger being sent back down again.

Under the leadership of Wildmoser and Lorant, the combination of proven veterans and young talent helped the club avoid relegation and become a decent mid-table side.

A 3—1 aggregate defeat, however, saw them play in the UEFA Cup that season, advancing to the third round where they were eliminated by Parma.

The club, however, was unable to build on this success and after some mediocre performances by the team, manager Lorant was fired. After a decade in the top division, burnt out in the —04 season with a 17th-place finish that returned the club to the 2.

Wildmoser made the controversial decision to groundshare with hated rivals Bayern Munich in the Allianz Arena , a move that outraged fans and led to accusations of a sell-out.

In addition to closely being relegated to the Regionalliga Süd III in the —06 season, experienced severe financial difficulties.

Following this move, the DFB was satisfied with the financial health of the club and duly issued a licence to play in the 2. Bundesliga for the —07 season.

TSV hired several new managers during its 2. Also, former Germany national team player Stefan Reuter as a general manager. Neither of the new managers, however, could lead the squad back to the top-flight Bundesliga.

Ewald Lienen coached the team from 13 May to the end of the —10 season. Reiner Maurer was hired as manager of at the start of the —11 season.

The —15 season saw the club finish 16th in the 2. It was forced to participate in the relegation play-offs against Holstein Kiel where it retained its league place with a 2—1 home win after a 0—0 draw in the first leg.

In —17, the team finished 16th in the 2. Bundesliga after a 1—2 defeat against 1. FC Heidenheim in the last game of the season.

They played and 0—2 respectively in the following relegation play-off against Jahn Regensburg and were therefore officially relegated. Liga license for the —18 season as a result of investor Hassan Ismaik's unwillingness to pay the necessary fees.

As a result, the club was relegated to the Regionalliga Bayern for the —18 season. The second eleven struggled during the club's years outside professional football, but rose through the ranks again after the club's revival in the early s and returned to the Bayernliga in , winning the title in its first season there and promotion to the third-tier Regionalliga Süd.

The team was relegated to the Bayernliga in , and returned to the Regionalliga Süd in Liga qualification in the —08 season, and again in the —13 season when it won the newly formed Regionalliga Bayern but lost to SV Elversberg in the promotion round.

Because the first team was relegated to Regionalliga Bayern for the season, the reserve team was relegated to the fifth-tier Bayernliga Süd.

Through the season, Munich played their home matches in the Allianz Arena , which they shared with city rivals Bayern Munich. The arena's skin color lighting is changed to s blue when the team plays.

The club's inaugural game at the Allianz Arena was a friendly played against 1. FC Nürnberg on 30 May The stadium hosted the opening match of the World Cup between Germany and Costa Rica and three other first round contests, a Round of 16 match between Germany and Sweden , and a semi-final between France and Portugal.

Built in , they also shared with Bayern Munich between and Both clubs then moved to the new Olympiastadion built for the Olympic Games.

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